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A well trained athlete will be much less likely to be affected by fatigue which ultimately effects technical/tactical and mental skills. As mentioned in the getting started, there are 3 types of skills in physical training.

The type of skills in your sport:

  • cyclic – repetitive motion … running etc. – include phases of each motion depending on the sport
  • acyclic – a combination of motions that result in an end result …. discuss throw, batting – team and individual sports
  • acyclic combined – cyclic followed by acyclic …. figure skating, jumping, track and field, gymnastics events

Most cyclic sports require exceptional endurance and speed and perfecting the cyclic movements for efficiency in economy of physiological resources. Acyclic benefit most from power, agility and speed training and the combined sports are as you guessed a combination of physical skills. Physical training is a foundation to optimal performance. Without strength, agility and all of the other components to various degrees, our athletes would not be able to perform to their highest potential. They enhance all technical and tactical skills and need to be given equal amount of focus in our YTPlan.




Energy Systems and Physical Training (a simple approach)

What is Lactic Acid?

After approximately 8-10 seconds of intense activity, the glycogen (created by food intake) that is stored in the muscle cells and liver begins to break down releasing energy to create more energy (ATP). As this process occurs at high intensity, oxygen is not available and the lack of oxygen during the breakdown of glycogen creates the lactic acid. As the exercise continues fatigue occurs preventing the athlete from continuing. For the muscles to attain full restoration of glycogen can take up to 24 hours. Active recovery (light activity) such as an exercise bike for 15 – 20 minutes can enhance the body’s return to homeostasis, removing lactic acid from the muscles. A good aerobic training base can facilitate the recovery from physical training and competing.

Anaerobic System (8-10 seconds)

  • the shortest energy exertion time period
  • explosive power is used used
  • 3-5 minutes for full recovery from activity – 70% recovery in the first 30 seconds
  • known as the ATP – CP system
  • lactic acid is not produced

Anaerobic Alactic system (10 seconds – 2 minutes)

  • anaerobic endurance and power is used
  • full recovery can take up to 24 hours
  • lactic acid is produced
  • known as the Anaerobic Lactic Acid system

Aerobic System (over 2 minutes)

  • long distance activities
  • uses oxygen
  • glycogen is broke down with oxygen which prevents the lactic acid build up
  • fats and proteins can be used for energy as the glycogen in the muscles is exhausted
  • aerobic capacity increased through training will determine the efficiency of this system

Most sporting activities use a combination of these energy systems. A good aerobic training base is important to maximizing the benefits of each one combined with sport specific training as you arrive to your per-competition phase. Understanding the energy systems and recovery times will allow coaches and trainers to design the most productive sport and position specific training programs. Click here for a breakdown of the energy systems used and how they are used in softball 🙂 Following are sample pages from my softball YTPlanner.


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